Acute Aortic Occlusion in a Critically Ill Adult Presenting to the Emergency Department

Pavrey, Renaldo and Chouhan, Vikrant and Goyal, Aakanksha and Goswami, Sreekant (2023) Acute Aortic Occlusion in a Critically Ill Adult Presenting to the Emergency Department. Open Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11 (04). pp. 186-191. ISSN 2332-1806

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Acute Aortic Occlusion (AAO) is a rare, life-threatening event so far described mainly in small-scale series. The most common causes of AAO are large saddle emboli to the aortic bifurcation, in-situ thrombosis of an atherosclerotic aorta, and occlusion of previous surgical reconstruction. We present the case of a 52-year-old female with rheumatic heart disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy with restricted left ventricular function, atrial fibrillation, and previous cardio-embolic stroke, who was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) with sudden-onset dyspnea and lower backache radiating to both the legs. On arrival at the ED, the patient was electively intubated and mechanically ventilated in view of hypoxia and altered mental status, attributed to respiratory failure secondary to acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The secondary survey revealed absence of bilateral femoral and popliteal artery pulsations. A computed tomography (CT) aortogram showed a complete lumen occlusion thrombus in the infra-renal region of the abdominal aorta at the level of L3-L4 lumbar vertebrae. An emergency embolectomy was performed successfully, following which the patient was started on heparin infusion and managed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In the ICU, she suffered a torsade-cardiac arrest, with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following rapid defibrillation. She was extubated on Day 3. Three weeks later, she was discharged from the hospital. At the time of discharge, she had developed ischemic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy, for which neuro-rehabilitation was advised. In our case report, we would like to highlight the following key points: 1) The importance of a detailed secondary survey in the Emergency Department (ED). 2) An inter-disciplinary approach to a complex syndrome that ensures the highest probability of a good outcome.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Eprints STM archive > Engineering
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email admin@eprints.stmarchive
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2023 10:11
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2023 10:11

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