Free-floating Planet Mass Function from MOA-II 9 yr Survey toward the Galactic Bulge

Sumi, Takahiro and Koshimoto, Naoki and Bennett, David P. and Rattenbury, Nicholas J. and Abe, Fumio and Barry, Richard and Bhattacharya, Aparna and Bond, Ian A. and Fujii, Hirosane and Fukui, Akihiko and Hamada, Ryusei and Hirao, Yuki and Silva, Stela Ishitani and Itow, Yoshitaka and Kirikawa, Rintaro and Kondo, Iona and Matsubara, Yutaka and Miyazaki, Shota and Muraki, Yasushi and Olmschenk, Greg and Ranc, Clément and Satoh, Yuki and Suzuki, Daisuke and Tomoyoshi, Mio and Tristram, Paul . J. and Vandorou, Aikaterini and Yama, Hibiki and Yamashita, Kansuke (2023) Free-floating Planet Mass Function from MOA-II 9 yr Survey toward the Galactic Bulge. The Astronomical Journal, 166 (3). p. 108. ISSN 0004-6256

[thumbnail of Sumi_2023_AJ_166_108.pdf] Text
Sumi_2023_AJ_166_108.pdf - Published Version

Download (1MB)


We present the first measurement of the mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs), or very wide orbit planets down to an Earth mass, from the MOA-II microlensing survey in 2006–2014. Six events are likely to be due to planets with Einstein radius crossing times tE < 0.5 days, and the shortest has tE = 0.057 ± 0.016 days and an angular Einstein radius of θE = 0.90 ± 0.14 μas. We measure the detection efficiency depending on both tE and θE with image-level simulations for the first time. These short events are well modeled by a power-law mass function, ${{dN}}_{4}/d\mathrm{log}M={({2.18}_{-1.40}^{+0.52})\times (M/8\,{M}_{\oplus })}^{-{\alpha }_{4}}$ dex−1 star−1 with ${\alpha }_{4}={0.96}_{-0.27}^{+0.47}$ for M/M⊙ < 0.02. This implies a total of $f={21}_{-13}^{+23}$ FFPs or very wide orbit planets of mass 0.33 < M/M⊕ < 6660 per star, with a total mass of ${80}_{-47}^{+73}{M}_{\oplus }$ star−1. The number of FFPs is ${19}_{-13}^{+23}$ times the number of planets in wide orbits (beyond the snow line), while the total masses are of the same order. This suggests that the FFPs have been ejected from bound planetary systems that may have had an initial mass function with a power-law index of α ∼ 0.9, which would imply a total mass of ${171}_{-52}^{+80}{M}_{\oplus }$ star−1. This model predicts that Roman Space Telescope will detect ${988}_{-566}^{+1848}$ FFPs with masses down to that of Mars (including ${575}_{-424}^{+1733}$ with 0.1 ≤ M/M⊕ ≤ 1). The Sumi et al. large Jupiter-mass FFP population is excluded.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Eprints STM archive > Physics and Astronomy
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email admin@eprints.stmarchive
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2023 07:28
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2023 07:28

Actions (login required)

View Item
View Item